The Strategic Use of Information Technology

July 1, 2017

TEACHER: Hello, Student. What do you know about Information Technology (IT)?

STUDENT: Well, I know that most software is full of “bugs”! By the way, why are these errors in programs called “bugs”?

TEACHER: Computer “bugs” have been around since malfunctions in a 1945 Mark II were blamed (facetiously) on a moth trapped in a relay. Nowadays the term refers to programming flaws -commands that don’t accomplish the desired result. But I am sure you must know more about IT than the fact that programs have bugs!

STUDENT: Recently I read an interesting article written by John Diebold years ago. Allow me to quote from it:

“Information technology . . . is becoming increasingly the key to national economic well being, affecting virtually every industry and service. One would be hard-pressed to name a business that does not depend on the effective use of information: to design products and services, to track and respond to market demands, or to make well-informed decisions. Information technology will change the world more permanently and more profoundly than any technology so far seen in the history and will bring about a transformation of civilization to match.”

TEACHER: Interesting. There is no doubt that information technology is currently a major force with the potential to affect a range of organizations in fundamental ways.

The impact of information technology on business operations has been enormous and will increase substantially.

There is no doubt that a shift from an industrial economy to an information oriented service economy is under way; and no one knows when the process will slow down.

In essence, scale and the conventional dimensions of time, space, and mass will no longer be constraints on the products of the information age. Unlike the standardized product created for the mass market of the industrial age, the electronic delivery of banking services, for example, is scale-independent and intangible, provides instantaneous service, and is not bound by the physical location of the bank.

STUDENT: AmbaiU’s online courses are a good example! Students from all over the world can instantly access the courseware. The dramatic growth of the Internet’s WWW service has Uncategorizedly been an important factor in the growth of IT in general.

TEACHER: True indeed. Environmental trends like globalization and heightened international competition are speeding the movement toward increased IT use by corporations. The exigencies of worldwide coordination of operations and the need to react rapidly to global competitive threats have emphasized the importance of IT in the current business context. Dramatic technological developments in hardware, software, databases, and telecommunications have simultaneously pushed the utilization of IT further along.

STUDENT: So, is the sky the limit for IT?

TEACHER: Not exactly. At the same time, several factors are militating against the rapid deployment of IT. Among these are the still-slow development of appropriate software, long-standing difficulties in quantifying IT benefits (for justifying IT investment), issues of database integration, and the lack of standards (for the purposes of inter-organizational connectivity).

STUDENT: I also think that there was “over-investment” in IT in the last decade of the 20th. century and even at the beginning of the 21st. And what about IT and Strategic Management?

TEACHER. True, we are primarily concerned with the likely impact of information technologies on the practice of strategic management. The reason for adopting such a perspective reflects a fundamental belief that information technologies can potentially influence the core of a firms activities: Choices pertaining to products, markets, and technologies (the corporate strategy level), as well as competitive methods within each of the product-market segments (the business strategy level).

STUDENT: I assume this is why the role of information technology is becoming broader than that of the traditional Information Systems (IS) function, and is becoming a general management concern and challenge.

TEACHER: Good observation. We will consider three linkages that interconnect three important concepts -strategic management (SM), information technology (IT), and the management information systems (IS) function.

* Link 1: Management Information Systems with Information Technology

According to the traditional view, IS is a service function (just as accounting, human resources, or industrial relations) which is charged with the task of efficient data processing and administration of the management reporting and control systems. According to such views, systems are designed to cater to the informational requirements of different managerial roles and are identified using standard informational requirements assessment methodologies. In consequence, systems are evaluated using criteria such as timeliness, format quality, and reliability, reflecting the technical capability of the system. The implication is that the role of IT was conceived largely as the technical core of the MIS function.

Consequently, the important characteristics of this linkage were hardware and software support for the information architecture, and flexibility of design to support minor modifications in the information requirements or to respond to the fast-changing technical core of the system’s hardware.

The strategic planning level, by virtue of its unstructured nature of decision making, received minimal support from the traditional conceptualizations and role definitions of IS.

Link 2: Strategic Management with Information Systems

The description of Link 1 reflects a view that the charter of the IS function was derived directly from the informational resource assessment and had no explicit linkages with strategic choices at the corporate and business levels. This view was representative of the actual situation until the late 1960s and early 1970s, when the need to tailor the design of MIS to the requirements of the organizational strategic context gained currency. In 1968, McKinsey & Co. published a report titled Unlocking the Computer’s Profit Potential that called for a formal link between the design and implementation of MIS and the firms strategies and objectives. This publication urged managers to visualize the role of computers in business organizations as something beyond a data processing resource at the operational level of the organization and more as a mechanism that supports their strategy.

STUDENT: Even before that McKinsey report, William King proposed that the “IS-strategy set (composed of IS objectives, IS constraints, and IS design strategies) should be derived from the “organization’s strategy set” (composed of organizational mission, objectives, and strategies).

TEACHER: You are a well read student, indeed!

STUDENT: You might remember that I come from an “IT family.” And I keep hearing a complaint from my IT relatives: while there is concern within the MIS discipline to ensure that MIS is designed in accordance with the strategic contexts of the firm, the link in the other direction, from the corporate strategic context to MIS, is still largely ignored.

TEACHER: True, but this is changing rapidly. Also, several authors have called attention to the possibility of exploiting information and information systems for strategic advantages. As William King noted in an editorial comment in the Management Information Systems Quarterly,— Information (and IS) has the potential to be a primary source of (competitive) advantage in the marketplace rather than merely as a resource to be efficiently managed or a service that is periodically turned on and off as needed.

STUDENT: Can we then assume that many see the link between strategic management and IS today as a bi-directional, mutually interconnected link, implying a strategic role for the IS function?

TEACHER: Certainly, and it was about time. In a transition towar
d a strategic role, the goals and tasks of the management information systems function undergo an important transformation. The systems are no longer viewed in terms of informational support for operational decisions, but rather in terms of the realization of the organization’s strategic objectives, especially the achievement of competitive superiority in the marketplace.

Information systems with a charter to achieve competitive superiority are called “strategic information systems” and differentiated from the more operationally focused MIS. Indeed, MIS has been traditionally concerned with the operational control systems for relatively structured decisions based on readily available, internal data. In contrast, strategic information systems are designed to support relatively unstructured decisions, especially those that are intricately tied to the activities of the market-place.

STUDENT: I hear that usually such decisions require a combination of internal and external data that: are neither well structured nor completely specified.

TEACHER: Exactly. Although a perfect demarcation between management information systems and strategic information systems cannot always be made, the conceptual distinction is important enough to be recognized just as the conceptual distinction between strategic and operational decisions.

Let me mention some examples of strategic information systems operating at real companies:

American Airlines : SABRE reservation System -installed in most travel agents for booking airline, hotel, and rental car reservations.

American Hospital Supply Co.: ASAP-order entry system-installed in over 4500 medical establishments to order supplies on-line. The system is internally interconnected to several supporting systems

Citicorp Extensive use of automated teller machines and global transaction network. Several systems that support their strategies for electronic banking services.

McKesson Corp. Economost -order entry system that supports customers with inventory control and analysis of sales.

United Airlines APOLLO-Travel agency reservation system with several augmented services installed in about 7700 agencies.

Student, can you think of specific strategic objectives any of these companies have achieved through IS?

STUDENT: Well, I am sure that SABRE provides American Airlines with critical operating data that can be used for strategic decisions; travel agents hooked on to SABRE are likely to book on American more than other airlines.

TEACHER: Yes, some much so that the US government has stepped in and put some limit’s on SABRE’s propensity to favor AA!

Strategic information systems achieve their objectives through several mechanisms, but two deserve special attention. These are: (1) the reconfiguration of the information flows within an organization to provide competitive advantages relative to competition, and/or (2) development of inter-organizational systems that extend beyond the traditional boundaries of a single focal organization.

STUDENT: Are these modes are mutually exclusive?

TEACHER: No, but we will discuss them independently.

Reconfiguration of Information Flows

Let us consider the case of an airline that uses timely data to increase its load factor -perhaps the single most critical factor for achieving success in the airline industry. By developing a strategic information system designed not only to continually collect data on flight bookings, but also to compare current sales against historical patterns, the airline can instruct its own ticketing agents (as well as travel agents) to modify the number of discount seats available on a particular flight depending on the current level of advance bookings.

STUDENT: By the same token, I guess that similar benefits can accrue to a hotel, where a key determinant of competitive performance is the occupancy ratio.

TEACHER: Correct. And the basic notion of timeliness of information can be extended from the context of the service sector to the manufacturing sector. Consider the case of an oil company which is able to communicate with its dealers directly and instantaneously as oil prices change to ensure minimum delay between the setting of prices in the headquarters and its realization at retail outlets.

STUDENT: But in these illustrations IT does not influence the fundamental strategic business choices.

TEACHER. Correct. However, the implementation of such decisions through organizational hierarchy and channels is facilitated through the use of IT, leading to improved strategic results.

Inter-organizational Systems Inter-organizational IT applications highlight the potential to achieve competitive success that extends beyond intra-organizational informational flows to the deploying and exploiting of information-based links with diverse actors in the marketplace.

STUDENT: Your are using rather complicated phrases today! In simple terms, what you mean is that an inter-organizational strategic information system is a system that extends beyond the boundaries of a single focal organization to link multiple organizations.

TEACHER: Glad to see that you understood! The potential todevelop such links (and the consequent benefits to achieve competitive advantage) is perhaps the single most important reason for the, increased attention to informational systems from a strategic management point of view.

The railroad industry, which has one of the highest levels of “penetration” of electronic data interchange (EDI) among all industries, displays several levels of inter-organizational systems use. And relatively new industries such as couriers (FedEx, UPS, etc.) are good examples too.

Let me also mention the McKesson Drug Company. The case of McKesson is frequently quoted as one of the most successful examples of business transformation using information technology capabilities. McKesson is a US national pharmaceutical distributor that receives close to 100 percent of its orders electronically from drugstores through its Economost systems. A customer orders by making a single pass through the store with a hand-held order entry device, keying in a product identifier or using a bar code scanner. Reorder quantities are indicated on shelf tags. When the complete order has been entered, it is transmitted to the data processing service.

McKesson clearly achieved operational efficiency benefits to improve its profitability. Although the company apparently did not gain share relative to its major distributor competition, it achieved significant strategic benefits in sales and market share gains relative to its larger competition. The system also achieved “increased tying of the customer to McKesson” which is a substantial strategic advantage. Moreover, McKesson offers a number of other services based on the data it obtains from the order entry system.

The company also provides other firms in the health care business with specialized strategic systems. The following announcement is a good example:

In May 2003, McKesson Corporation announced that LibertyHealth in Jersey City, N.J., signed an eight-year, $47 million agreement for products and services designed to transform the use of clinical information to support patient care in its three-hospital system. LibertyHealth contracted for McKesson’s Horizon Clinicals(TM) suite (of programs) to enhance patient safety, reduce medication errors and increase patient referrals by providing physicians and other caregivers with better access to information.

“We have a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to reinvent the use of IT to support patient care and enhance quality as we open our new hospital,” said Dr. Jonathan Metsch, LibertyHealth’s president and chief executive officer. “To create the best environment of care, it’s a given that we must provide the latest medical equipment. But, just as importantly, we must provide the most advanced clinical IT solutions to support our 900 doctors and nurses as they provide healthcare for this community of 600,000 people. That’s why we’ve
partnered with McKesson — we get superb, advanced clinical applications.”

Link 3: Strategic Management with Information Technology

Over the last years, several new and powerful forces in the technological and market environment compel one to recognize the link between strategic management and information technology in terms of the fundamental role played by IT in influencing the formulation of a firm’s strategy rather than merely supporting its implementation.

The potential for innovative modes of competing as well as new products and services made possible through IT provides managers with an entirely different spectrum of opportunities and threats. Given the general explosion of computing power and communications capabilities (integrated voice and data, the Internet), several new business applications can be (and have been) developed in those areas that directly enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the market-place.

Example: Merrill Lynch Merrill Lynch’s strategy demonstrates the potential offered by information technologies to develop superior substitute products (or services) as well as altering the definition and domain of business operations. The introduction of Cash Management Account (CMA) by Merrill Lynch represented a revolution in terms of redefining the concept of financial services in a marketplace that was dominated by the traditional banking institutions. The new business concept was built around integrating diverse financial instruments under one common umbrella such that the individual investor is able to enjoy the convenience of moving money across them as well as benefit from the “float” that the banks traditionally enjoyed. This account permitted the integration of four basic services to investors: (1) automatic investment of cash and dividends in a money market account, (2) credit through a standard margin account, (3) cash withdrawal by check or debit card, and (4) investment advice in managing and diversifying the account.

The strategy could not be implemented without the use of information technology, for it requires daily swaps across different accounts to post the credit card charges, checks, securities, and deposits, as well as to develop a daily updated credit limit for each account holder. This complex data processing operation is not incidental to the business concept but is fundamental to its conceptualization and operation. The importance of IT in this strategy is perhaps best emphasized by the fact that Merrill Lynch obtained a patent for the cash management account system. The annual fees generated by this product for Merrill Lynch were quite substantial.

Although several variations (circurnventing the patent protection) of this basic concept have appeared in recent years, none has so far matched the success of Merrill Lynch’s product.

Other firms which have utilized IT to break down traditional industry borders in the services sector include Sears, now an integrated financial services provider; Citicorp, now an investment and realty firm as well as a bank; and American Express, always strong in the travel business, now making a play in international banking, insurance, and securities, in addition, to becoming a financial and information supermarket. Indeed, the entire industry is being transformed due to parallel but related forces: deregulation and technology.

Internet Marketing: How To Build A List

July 12, 2017

The first thing you will need to do is choose a niche from one of the three main markets:

  1. Health
  2. Wealth
  3. Lifestyle

What is a niche?

A niche is a specific segment of a market. For example, in the “Health” market, a niche could be losing weight, eating right, organic food, health eating, gaining weight, skin care or quit smoking. In the “Wealth” market, a niche could be internet marketing, debt relief, working from home, starting your own business, or trading online. In the “Lifestyle” market, a niche could be dating, computer games, pets, relationship advice, online study courses or stress management. These are just a few ideas. If you are still not sure of a niche, you can look on ClickBank for ideas.

What is ClickBank?

ClickBank is a secure online retail outlet for more than 12,000 digital product sellers and 100,000 active affiliate marketers. Some people refer to it as the Amazon.com for digital products. Once you have chosen your niche you will need to build a list.

How do I build a list?

To build a list you will need to do 2 things:

  1. Generate traffic to your website
  2. Capture the name and email address of visitors to your website

How do I do this?

  1. Join forums in your niche. For example, if your niche was “losing weight”, you could perform a search on Google for “weight loss forums” or “losing weight forums”. There will be many to choose from. Have a look at several of the forums and join a few of the ones you like. Once you’ve joined some forums in your niche, contribute to them on a regular basis by posting comments, tips and information that visitors to the forums would find interesting or useful. For example, if your niche was losing weight, you could post tips on losing weight quickly, comment on posts made by other forum members, etc.
  2. Create a short report of useful tips and post a thread about the report in the forums. The report should contain links to your website and also be full of useful information. Offer the report as a free download – people love freebies. Tell visitors they will need to provide their name and email address to download the free report. If the report is of great value, visitors will provide this information willingly. This is a great way to build your list – offering something of value to people.

Wading Into Internet Marketing

June 23, 2017

Internet marketing has the great advantage of low barriers/cost for entry. For as little as $50 and about 15 minutes you can be serving up pay per click (PPC) ads, with very little effort. This makes it very attractive for companies to try it out.

But you can’t really just try it out – not if you want to make it work. You’ve got to make a commitment; Internet marketing is similar to traditional marketing in that it is difficult to predict what will work in your target markets and what won’t. As with anything else in business, there are no guarantees of success.

Broaden Your Approach

As well, you don’t want to pin your hopes on the one Internet marketing activity you chose to try, because if the results are not as you expected, you’ll be disillusioned. Just like traditional marketing, communicating your message in more than one medium and multiple times will increase the probability of making the sale. Thankfully many online and offline elements work well together to achieve this. Along with a commitment, investment in a number of upfront activities will greatly improve success:

1. Research into keywords and user behaviour – These are staples in all Internet marketing activities; know them well.

2. The advice of experts – You don’t need them on your payroll and you don’t need them on every campaign, but an expert can help you choose the right Internet marketing tactics and ensure everything is set up correctly. As well they can interpret the campaign results. Click throughs (number of clicks to an advertisement), bounce rates (number of visitors who leave your site after viewing one page) and exit pages (pages that users are leaving your website from) can be a bit daunting. You may be able to judge if results are good or bad but more importantly, do you know what action to take next in order to improve?

3. Correct set up of analytics tools – To properly set up filters and segment your website traffic statistics to get at the data that is most important to your business is not straightforward, especially if multiple websites are involved. Many businesses don’t set up tracking correctly and work with inaccurate data.

4. Landing page templates – These are pages on your site specific to a campaign or promotion that people arrive at when they click from a PPC ad, online ad or a print campaign. A template based approach lets you reuse your investment for future campaigns.

5. Email template – If email is on your roster- and it should be since it’s cost effective and can be highly targeted – invest in 1 or 2 great templates. With a base template, all you need to do is swap in new content each time you want to send to your list. All of your emails will be consistently branded and polished if you take the time to do it right.

Your Return on Investment

These set-up activities will pay off in the long run. Yes, it’s more upfront cost, but once it’s all in place, subsequent campaigns will be mostly execution and reporting. And you don’t have to include their full cost in the Return on Investment (ROI) calculation – you can amortize them over a year or more to more accurately represent the value of your campaigns.

Approach Internet marketing with the knowledge that it is a cost-effective, flexible set of options to reach your market. But know that just because you can measure results, there is no guarantee of good results. By making an investment in the foundation activities and taking advantage of the intelligence that measurement provides, each campaign teaches you about the market and your user’s behaviour so subsequent campaigns can be that much stronger – every time.

Economic Recession Blues – Hospitals Aren't an Exception

July 3, 2017

In its most recent update, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced that world growth is forecast to fall to its lowest level since World War II. And with the US being one of the worst hit, the hospital business, an integral part of the medical marketplace, and often regarded as recession proof is beginning to feel the heat.

Despite the fact that hospitals aren’t hit the way the way the automotive sector or the retail has been, and that people will continue to fall sick irrespective of the economy, it seems that the number of people seeking medical care and the profitability of hospitals don’t walk hand-in-hand.

Growth stunted & patients decreasing

A recent report by the American Hospital Association (AHA) finds that the sputtering economy has already led to 45% of hospitals to postpone forthcoming capital projects, with about 13% being forced to completely stall any expansion projects already underway. The AHA report included 639 hospitals in the study.

Further, experts believe that even though people continue to fall sick they’re postponing, most treatments if not all, which can be classified as elective. The credit for the prevailing scenario goes to all the layoffs and the slowing economy. As per the Bureau of Labor Statistics the month of December saw some of the worst layoff figures, as there were 2,275 mass layoff actions, involving 226,117 workers.

What seems worse is that aside from foregoing elective treatments, patients seem to be avoiding essential drugs, with many actually abusing prescription drugs, such as narcotic painkillers , sedatives and tranquilizers and stimulants.

As a consequence, hospitals are reeling under delayed hospital equipment and supply purchases, declining patient visits, reduced staff with no fresh hiring, unpaid medical bills, in addition to ceasing any construction projects. The AHA survey, released in November last year found that patient visits were static or had decreased during the third quarter of 2008, and the cases of unpaid medical bills for hospitals registered a hike of 8%.

The government’s role in uplifting the spirit of hospitals is being thought to be instrumental as Medicare and Medicaid account for about half of the hospital business industry.

Common Pitfalls of a Career in Commercial Real Estate

June 11, 2017

When you start your career in commercial real estate, you will soon know the common pitfalls that prevail in the industry. They are nothing special and unique, but they do require specific focus and action to resolve.

The pitfalls that most agents and salespeople come across are some of the following:

  • Finding new clients in the local area is not as easy as it originally seemed. The process requires hard work and daily diligent focus. Prospecting is one of the most important things that you can do in your career.
  • The competitive nature of the industry means that you will be up against other agents continually in presenting and pitching your services. It is easy to believe that you will win a listing, however the motivations of clients are many and varied.
  • Agents and salespeople with local property knowledge are useful, however the agent that usually wins the listing will be the one that shows the greatest level of confidence and solid negotiation skills. Clients like to work with experienced achievers that can solve their property problem quickly.

These three points would indicate that you must be prepared to work hard and to a plan. The most successful agents in the industry achieve their results through diligent focus and daily hard work. I go back to the point made earlier; you must prospect daily regardless of how much other work you have currently. Failure to prospect today means that your business will slow down within about two or three months.

Here is a good business model that can be used in most commercial real estate agencies. This is a personal model that should apply to sales people.Research the new business leads and opportunities every night before you commence the next day. On this basis you will have new people to contact. A big part of your job is to create a new leads and new opportunities. That is how you will grow your market share.

  1. Start your day early and always with the prospecting system and process that is relevant to your property type. Generally speaking this will mean lots of cold calls within a defined system that you feed with new leads and opportunities.
  2. The prospecting process should take about two or three hours every morning. By the time you get to the middle of the day, you will have achieved two or three meetings from those calls made in the morning.
  3. Do your property inspections and client meetings in the afternoon. That then leaves the late afternoon for you to do your paperwork and marketing.

Organisation and focus will turn your career in a positive direction. This does take time, however diligent daily process should see positive results within about one month. When the results start to come in, you simply keep the process moving ahead. Do not change the rules, and remain consistent.

The Pros and Cons of a Career in Commercial Real Estate Today

June 23, 2017

When it comes to a career in commercial real estate, there are many advantages, and quite a few challenges. When taken in balance, the career and industry offers significant opportunity. The level of success that you can achieve is driven from your commitment to various knowledge processes and taking the right personal action.

So many people enter the industry without due regard for the hard work that needs to be done. As with any sales related career, commercial real estate is very challenging and yet very rewarding. When the market gets tough, you find a number of salespeople leave the industry because they have not established the right systems in their personal business.

If commercial real estate is for you, then get organized and systemized. You need to plan for the future and take consistent action every day to build your market share and obtain quality listings. Talk to more people; it is a people based property market and those people need to know you as the expert. Over time you can become the agent of choice.

Here are some of the key factors required to consolidate your personal focus and action in your career. Consider how these key issues apply to you and how they can be improved. Consider also how they apply within your marketplace and your property specialty.

  1. Sales skills are required on a number of levels. You are effectively selling yourself in the first instance, and then you are pitching and presenting across a number of topics. To be an expert in this property market, personal confidence and local knowledge are important factors. The property market is changing on a regular basis with new pressures within selling, leasing, and property management. Understand how to sell your services across these three disciplines as they change and shift.
  2. Prospecting will always be the most important thing that you do every day. Everything else in your diary ranks a clear second when it comes to prospecting. Cold calling and prospecting must occur on a daily basis with new people and with those people that you have spoken to before. You need a business model to sustain regular ongoing contact with qualified prospects at least once every 90 days.
  3. Commissions will vary depending on the pressures of the market place, the client, the property, and the services provided. Importantly the commissions you charge should not be discounted to any great degree. It takes significant effort to achieve results in commercial real estate today. The clients that ask for discounts could receive a discounted service if that is what makes them happy. They soon understand that results are more important than discounts.
  4. Quality listings should be the focus of your prospecting and networking. It is the quality listings that will bring you good levels of enquiry. Some low quality listings will distract you from the quality properties that you should be working on. You work as a salesperson and your commissions are driven from results. Results are much easier to obtain from quality listings. It should also be said that quality listings should be optimized to exclusive agency appointments. In this way you will gain the sufficient time that you require to comprehensively cover the market place.
  5. Property specialty is a good thing. When you focus on one particular property type it is far easier for you to become the expert in the local area. Many agents focus on industrial property initially given the simplicity of the property type. Over time you can move to Office Property and eventually Retail Property. They are more complex when it comes to selling and leasing.
  6. Competitive agents exist in every marketplace. You need to know who they are and what they’re doing. It may be that they already successfully service a segment of the market that is similar to yours and therefore you will be pitching and presenting against them frequently. Understand these competitors and the pressures they will apply on your business and sales processes. Be better than the other agents that are out there. This is a skills and knowledge based process that you can work on.
  7. Systemize your business day and career as much as possible. At least 50% of your day should be devoted to market growth and prospecting. It is very easy for this to be overlooked or postponed given the pressures of your existing clients, listings, and current deals. Self-discipline and focus will get you through the problem.

Those salespeople that choose to improve their actions and systems soon rise to the top of the market. It is a deliberate choice that should be made early in your career.

Car Rental Rates – How to Get the Best Car Rental Rates

June 24, 2017

Car rental rates are obviously dependent on which dealership you opt for and how long you need the vehicle for. To get the best car rental rates you must be certain of the period in which you are going to require the vehicle for. For example, you would not want to rent a car for 3 days, to find out you need it for an additional 3 days this is where dealerships will charge for days the vehicle is required for, at their daily rate; savings are to be made when you book for a week if there is any chance of requiring the vehicle for longer. Agencies operate on weekly and daily rates; it always pays to look into the weekly rate as this is usually lower than a per day rate.

If you want to find the best car rental rates you must shop around. Car rental rates are constantly changing due to supply and demand and obviously change in line with the season. You will need to book far in advance should you want a rental car over any holiday period. Make sure you enquire about special holiday rates as some rental agents will give away a day extra for free over these periods. Make sure you are certain of you required dates over these periods as agencies cancellations over these periods will incur large fees.

To find the best car rental rates when it comes to long distance trips, it pays to book well in advance and ask your travel agent of any deals that are not publicly advertised. If you are planning a road trip to Las Vegas for tonight, you’ll have wanted to have booked at least a week ago to get the best rates and avoid disappointment. Remember that reservation only guarantees a reserved rate, you must specify if you are after a specific vehicle.

If you think the weekend car rental rates you are getting are too good to be true, then they probably are. You will want to ask for any hidden costs, such as insurance, state taxes, varying fees for drivers of different ages and refueling charges. Ask your rental agent of any compulsory insurance fees, as these hidden costs are generally what makes the advertised costs so well, read the disclaimer! Some states in America give rental car agents permission to charge extra fees on their rentals to cover the costs of licensing their cars. This is fee is generally 6% of the total rental costs. The majority of states in America do not require rental agents to inform the customer of this fee, so make sure you ask before hiring.

To get the cheapest, most value for money rental car rates you will need to shop around, be sure of the duration you require the vehicle for, make sure you ask about any hidden fees and always book well in advance.

Electric Cigarettes (cigarros electronicos )- Could They Be For You Personally?

June 14, 2017

E-cigarette will make it easy for you to definitely unwind WITHOUT health problems.

Maybe you’ve heard with regards to electronic cigarette(cigarro electronico) smoking still? Electronic cigarette smoking include many rewards within the standard smoking cigarettes. We ought to start by way of revealing just what a electronic cigarettes(cigarros electronicos) smoking really is — a digital camera typically fashioned much like a smoking cigarette(cigarro) which can help you inhale nicotine by utilizing water smoke. These products tend to be fumes cost-free and don’t demand lighting, meaning that you might relaxation almost everywhere you want. Nowadays it is possible to relax in the bar, at the office, on college and possibly with planes!
Seeing you will probably have discovered, you’ll uncover a number of forms additionally to brands of e-cigarette(elektronines Cigaretes) smoking offered. There is available this cigar, electronic, minuscule smoking cigarettes and perhaps some kind of conduit you can choose.

What kind you at long last choose relies your own preferred manner of cigarettes. Nevertheless the designs will vary, most electronic cigarette(sigaretta elettronica) smoking work similarly. Lots of people incorporate a cartridge, atomizer additionally to energy supply that really help this ecigarette smoking work. This cartridge will most likely incorporate a juice nicotine concoction together with a atomizer. This atomizer will most likely warm-up this juice having a cartridge, creating some kind of vapor including smoke, that’s breathed in in the smoker. Numerous will most likely have the ability to consider other immediate advantages.

You do not have inappropriate reason to acquire electronic cigarette(sigarette elettroniche) smoking. Lots of people include no harmful toxins, you are able to really fumes everywhere and additionally they’re a lot more affordable compared to regular cigarettes. People also won’t have to assist take into account smelling including fumes additionally to trashing ones clothes, house or possibly vehicle inside. Let us face the product, customary cigarettes can easily have numerous cost, specially when people consider each of the disguised . prices including such. At this time people can actually certainly take advantage of the pleasure associated with cigarette free from a few of the extended unwanted effects. Just in case you’re sole additionally to looking for someone up to now, using the electronic cigarette smoking people should not get judged to become a smoking afficionado. This collection associated with benefits goes so on and you’ll probably consider numerous yourself.

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First Date Clothing Suggestions For Men

June 18, 2017

Dressing smartly and suitably for a date is an area which some men unfortunately overlook and feel they don’t need to make an effort dressing for a date. This is the first mistake a man can make when going on a date. Having said that, not all men overlook this area; there are some men who spend hours getting ready for a date but wouldn’t admit it. Wherever you decide to go on a date, regardless of the class, it is vital that you appear to have made an effort and turn up looking your best wearing a freshly washed and ironed outfit.

First impressions can make or break a date, so the importance of looking smart cannot be underestimated. Along with being washed and ironed, clothes must fit properly, be stain free, be hole free, not too tight, not too baggy, not garish and not old and faded. It is also important that the outfit you choose to wear on a date is suitable for the date location plus matches your age. Dressing older or younger than your actual age will only make you stand out. By dressing too young you may appear like you are trying to recapture your youth resulting in your date believing you have other personal issues going on. Alternatively dressing too old could be off putting for your date. You want your date to look at you and feel happy to be on a date with you, not to wonder what they have got themselves into.

The easiest date to dress for is a casual date. This may include going for a drink in a bar, going out for fast food or a visit to the cinema. For any casual date, it is perfectly acceptable to wear jeans. It does not mean that you can dress down or wear jeans that have seen better days. Jeans should be in good condition and have a perfect fit, especially around the bottom area, which is where most women tend to have a good look at. You can choose between a variety of tops to accompany jeans, such as a t-shirt, a poloshirt, a casual shirt or a sweater. Poloshirts are ideal if you have a good physique and you wish to show it off. If the weather is cold, then a casual jacket is suitable. If you decide to wear a t-shirt, it is best to avoid garish colours and stay away from novelty t-shirts, at least for the first date anyway. If you decide to tuck your top into your trousers, remember to wear a belt to add a finishing touch to your look.

You can get away with wearing jeans on a casual date, but if you are going on a classy date, then they are not appropriate. A more formal look is required for a classy date, such as a visit to the theatre or a meal at a fancy restaurant. It’s a good idea to own a suit, ideally in a dark colour such as charcoal grey or navy, as you can create a number of different looks using just one suit. You can wear a variety of different shirts and ties with a suit or you can change your look entirely by wearing the suit trousers with a casual shirt, or even wear the suit jacket over a casual outfit to create another great look. If you choose to wear casual attire on a classy date then all you will achieve is showing your date that you couldn’t be bothered to make an effort, plus you will stand out especially if your date is wearing a stylish dress. Once you have chosen your outfit, don’t ruin the look by wearing inappropriate shoes. Formal footwear should be worn when going on a formal date. Trainers, sandals, pumps and boots are not appropriate. Formal shoes must be clean, match the outfit and comfortable to wear. If you are wearing a belt with your trousers, then ideally your shoes should be the same colour as the belt. Footwear is an area that women tend to notice, so great footwear can leave a great lasting impression on your date.

An active date, such as playing a game of tennis, or going walking together, requires a different look. It is necessary to wear sports gear and not forgetting supportive footwear. Clean modern jogging bottoms or shorts are appropriate, just as long as shorts aren’t too small and tight and jogging bottoms aren’t baggy at the knees. A t-shirt, long or short sleeved is suitable and if the weather is cold, then a sports jacket or a sweatshirt can be worn. Dressing for a sporty date is not a time to put fashion before comfort. You need to dress in clothes that won’t restrict your movement plus feel comfortable to wear; remembering to check that they are clean before you put them on, including your footwear.

If your date has arranged the date and you don’t know where you are going, then you need to wear an outfit that is suitable for a range of date locations. A good suggestion is a pair of smart trousers accompanied with a fashionable shirt and a stylish jacket. A stylish jacket, such as a suit jacket will be appropriate if your date has booked a table at a fancy restaurant, and a fashionable shirt is sufficient for any casual date and even a slightly classier date. There is no need to wear a tie, but if you prefer, you could always conceal a tie in your jacket pocket in case you find yourself going to an upmarket venue. If you feel overdressed, you can remove the suit jacket to reveal your casual shirt. It is always better to be slightly overdressed than underdressed, which will show that you have made an effort.

Along with clean, ironed, fresh smelling and well fitted clothes, it is a good idea to turn up for a date clean shaven, showered and smelling great. Smelling good is very attractive to women, just don’t overdo the aftershave or body spray. Don’t leave your decision making to the last minute. Think in advance about what you wish to wear and take your time getting ready. The last thing you want is to turn up for a date feeling flustered and worried because you forgot to shave or put on deodorant. Planning your outfit in advance and looking like you have made an effort are the two main keys to dressing well for a first date.

Dental Insurance And Individual Health Plans

June 22, 2017

You could rarely find and buy individual health plans that also cover dental hygiene. There is useful information that people should know particularly if they consider buying the policies separately.

It is estimated that about 45 million Americans currently don’t own any dental insurance policy. Most non-elderly citizens who own individual health plans also own dental hygiene policies. However, majority of people who buy health insurance plans by themselves do not have dental insurance. This data is based on a report released by Centers for Disease Manage and Prevention.

While individual health plans cover several added services like basic emergency care in addition to costs of prescription drugs, they logically are not necessary to include coverage for adult oral care. Nevertheless, for health insurance policies for children, dental services are needed.

In March 2010, reforms to the healthcare insurance coverage were set. However, despite the push exerted through many advocates, that bill did not include the wider dental component. Supporters and proponents of the reform argued that each health plans already cover costs for other pressing health problems like diabetes and heart diseases.

About 75% of 172 million Americans under age 65 years (who own private health insurance plans) have dental insurance plans as well. Their employers mostly supply the health insurances. Among those with separate dental protection, more than a quarter of them have comprehensive plans with dental insurance while one fourth have stand-alone plans. Some have both.

About 90 million Americans own individual health plans through Medicaid and Medicare insurance, which both do not offer dental care programs for adults. There is no figure available regarding public health insurance plans. Medicaid shoulders dental take care of people under 21 years old. The insurer currently serves up to 45 million people of the low-income group. However, such patients complain about troubles to find accredited dentists.

A separate government-sponsored program provides dental hygiene, albeit limited. It is the Children’s Health Insurance coverage Program. As for the older people, they could always choose to purchase separate dental care policies from health insurance companies.

Do you look for health insurers that also offer dental hygiene plans? Data from the Association for Health Insurance Plans reveal that we now have only a few insurers that do so. Individuals include Cigna Corp, Aetna Inc, Assurant Inc, Humana Inc, as well as UnitedHealth Group Inc. The association represents up to 80 of overall dental insurance plans in america. There are also health insurance plans that offer dental coverage included in health policies. They include several and specific programs from MetLife, Principal Financial Group Inc, and Azure Cross Blue Shield Association.

Experts advise people to purchase dental care insurance policies even if they currently own individual healthcare plans. Purchasing separate plans is more advisable especially because it might be very hard, if not impossible, to find and purchase health insurance policies that also include dental protection.

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theeninfam1997.eu.org
theept.eu.org